|Drug Test Type||Positive||Negative||Detection Time Frame|
|Urine Drug testing||· Accurate and reliable results
· Affordable, inexpensive drug test kit· Drug testing for different specimen of abuse, including various drugs, alcohol and nicotine· Well known for the specialists and general public
· Laboratory confirmation available
|· Adulteration, dilution, and substitution methods well known and common
· Need a special room and same sex personnel
· Could be embarrassing for some tested persons
· Invasive method with problems of specimen handling and shipping to laboratory, because of hazardous nature
|· Basically 1 to 5 days, depend of substance nature, usage regularity and body type
· For example, Marijuana could stay longer, up to 3-4 weeks with the heavy users with overweight problems
|Hair Follicle Drug Testing||· Longer window of detection.
· Greater stability (does not deteriorate).
· Can measure chronic drug use.
· Convenient shipping and storage (no need to refrigerate).
· Collection procedure not considered invasive or embarrassing.
· More difficult to adulterate than urine.
· Detects alcohol/cocaine combination use.
|· More expensive.
· Test usually limited to basic 5-drug panel.
· Cannot detect alcohol use.
· Will not detect very recent drug use (1 to 7 days prior to test).
|· Depends on the length of hair in the sample. Hair grows about a half-inch per month, so a 1½-inch specimen would show a 3-month history.|
|Saliva (Oral Fluid) Drug Testing||· Sample obtained under direct observation.
· Minimal risk of tampering.
· Samples can be collected easily in virtually any environment.
· Can detect alcohol use.
· Reflects recent drug use.
|· Drugs and drug metabolites do not remain in oral fluids as long as they do in urine.
· Less efficient than other testing methods in detecting marijuana use.
|· Approximately 10 to 24 hours.|
|Surface (Aerosol Drug Testing)||· Non-invasive.
· Variable removal date (generally 1 to 7 days).
· Quick application and removal.
· Longer window of detection than urine.
· No sample substitution possible.
|· Limited number of labs able to process results.
· People with skin eruptions, excessive hair, or cuts and abrasions cannot wear the patch.
· Passive exposure to drugs may contaminate patch and affect results.
|· Patch retains evidence of drug use for at least 7 days, and can detect even low levels of drugs 2 to 5 hours after last use.|